Indigenous midwives' centre, Chiapas, MexicoPhoto credit: Simon Chambers/PWRDF
Over the past year, Tijuana, Mexico, has seen an influx of U.S.-bound Haitian migrants fleeing communities left in disrepair from the 2010 earthquake and further devastated by Hurricane Matthew in October 2016. These migrants often begin their journey in Latin America and trek through multiple countries and hostile terrain only to find they cannot enter the U.S. once at the border. Among the stalled Haitian migrants living in makeshift shelters as they contemplate their next steps, pregnant women face another uncertainty: whether they or their baby will languish during pregnancy and childbirth without access to skilled maternal and newborn health care. Recognizing this health crisis, a group of midwives, Parteras Fronterizas (Borderland Midwives in English), arrived on the scene to provide antenatal and safe childbirth care, with help from women who translated from Spanish or English to Haitian Creole.
Abstract: Although the risk of onset in the next year, or in the next decade, cannot be quantified, a severe pandemic involving person-to-person transmission of a novel respiratory virus is considered by leading organizations to be a substantial global threat. The ongoing threat posed by the H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza viruses, and by the MERS coronavirus, should serve to remind us of the continuing importance of pandemic preparedness. In a severe pandemic from a rapidly spreading novel respiratory virus, when all countries and all responding organizations will themselves be struck, most low-resource populations will fail to receive adequate medical supplies, and their health services will be more stressed than they are today. However, these populations could, by employing well-planned, evidence-based measures, reduce disease transmission and care for those not severely ill, without substantial outside resources. Authoritative guidance must be developed, and support provided for country adaptation, planning for rapid roll-out, and testing of these plans.
Emanuel Bizimungu a community health worker in Rwanda, examines a girl, Sandrine Uwase, two and a half, who he treated for malaria. She recovered after several days. They are in Nyagakande village, near the Ruhunda health center in eastern Rwanda.Photo credit: Todd Shapera
Malaria is a complex disease – how it’s transmitted and where, who becomes sick, the numerous efforts to control and combat it and, yet, after centuries we still haven’t managed to eradicate it.
During the past five years, the global partnership to fight malaria has witnessed some success including a 29% reduction in malaria mortality and a 75% increase in use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Despite these successes, the global burden of disease still sits heavily at 212 million new cases and 429,000 deaths in 2015 – the majority of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly half the world’s population is at risk of contracting malaria with 70% of malaria deaths occurring in children less than five years of age, who are particularly susceptible to the disease (WHO, 2016).
Malaria in pregnant women contributes to several negative outcomes including miscarriage, premature birth, labor complications, low birth-weight babies, anemia, and maternal and newborn death. In Sierra Leone, malaria in pregnancy and child mortality rates are especially high: the disease contributes to nearly 40 percent of deaths of children under the age of five. While there is a clear understanding of the interventions needed throughout the country, at training institutions and health facilities, there is a gap in the skillset and knowledge of how to implement effective malaria diagnosis and treatment.
We have made great strides in ridding the world of malaria, but there’s still work to be done—and the time is right to finish the job. New technology is helping communities around the world prevent, diagnose, and treat malaria in new and innovative ways. In Mozambique, the Malaria Consortium has developed a phone app that helps community health workers diagnose and treat malaria. In Zanzibar, Tanzania, local health facilities can use text messages to report malaria cases. And Mali uses a system called OSPSANTE, developed by the MSH-led, USAID-funded Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) project, to track the availability and use of pharmaceuticals in the fight against malaria.
A health worker fills in a child’s immunization booklet during an immunization clinic at Phebe Hospital in central Bong County, Liberia. (Cindy Shiner/MSH)
After losing both her parents to Ebola, Liberian nurse Salome Karwah recovered from the virus herself. Protected by her new immunity, she returned to work to care for countless other victims. Time Magazine recognized her as a 2014 Person of the Year for her compassion and tirelessness. In February of this year, Nurse Karwah was rushed to the hospital with seizures following a cesarean delivery of her son. Her garish symptoms frightened the hospital staff that knew she had survived Ebola. They would not touch her. They let her die without treatment.
That is what stigma looks like.
Even after being declared free of Ebola, many survivors found themselves alone, as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies reported. A chilling new normal replaced the terror and death in the isolation wards: rejection by family, friends, and neighbors, even by their places of worship. Employers fired them. Customers abandoned them. There was no carrying on with the lives they knew before Ebola. There was only more loss.
A community health volunteer explains the use of pregnancy tests to a client.
This World Health Worker Week (April 2-8), we honor the health workers around the world who work every day to improve health in their communities. This photo essay illustrates the important role that community health volunteers play in strengthening Madagascar's health system.
Community health volunteers (CHVs) play a critical role in providing primary health care services in Madagascar, especially for rural populations who live far from health facilities. In many areas of the country, CHVs often collectively offer services to more people than health centers do. CHVs are important extensions of the Malagasy health system, particularly for women and children.
As of 2016, the USAID Mikolo Project, led by MSH and funded by USAID, supported nearly 7,000 CHVs across 506 communes. They fill a critical gap in human resources for health in support of the Ministry of Public Health’s efforts to improve health care in the country.
Tuberculosis (TB) kills more people each year than any other infectious disease. It severely strains health systems and local, regional, and national economies. And, like many health crises, the disease disproportionately affects vulnerable populations. Many families incur catastrophic costs, aggravating poverty in communities.
This World TB Day, we reflect on the progress we've made and the challenges we still face in the fight to end TB. The key moving forward is to work together to ensure we don't leave anyone behind.
VIDEO: Working to End TB in Uganda
“We have the medicines that actually cure tuberculosis,” said Raymond Byaruhanga, project director for the USAID-funded, MSH-led TRACK TB project in Uganda. “So the question is why? Why [do we still see] TB today, and why isn’t it being treated?”
In 2015, TB caused 1.8 million deaths around the world, and another 10 million people fell ill from the disease, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Women and children are particularly vulnerable. TB causes between 6 and 15 percent of all maternal deaths, and childhood TB is too often not detected, diagnosed, or treated.
Throughout global societies, women’s roles place them at the epicenter of risk from disease outbreaks and epidemics. This is true everywhere, but especially so in poor countries with health systems unprepared to meet the ever-surging demands of a public health emergency.
The interaction between gender roles, disease transmission, and socio-economic stability reach a perilous tipping point in epidemics; failing to address that interaction will result in deficient strategies for outbreak prevention and control, and in massive setbacks for women’s health, and development gains. Unless global health security measures help us understand the impact of emerging diseases on women, nations and the world will remain vulnerable to pandemics.
"The Lucky Specials" cast members attend the US premiere in Silver Spring, MD.Photo credit: Discovery Learning Alliance
As the global health community prepares to observe World TB Day on March 24, Discovery Learning Alliance, the nonprofit subsidiary of Discovery Communications, opened “The Lucky Specials” in the U.S., a feature-length film about a small-time band in a dusty town in southern Africa with an important message about health.
Mandla (Oros Mampofu) is a miner by day and plays lead guitar for The Lucky Specials by night. He dreams of making it big in the music industry, but when tragedy strikes, the band, Mandla, and their friend Nkanyiso (Sivenathi Mabuya) struggle to hold everything together.
Woven into the narrative are messages to help audiences understand and respond to one of the world’s biggest killers, tuberculosis, which killed almost two million people worldwide in 2015. That is more people than died from AIDS that year. With a unique fusion of live-action drama and state-of-the-art animation, “The Lucky Specials” reveals the unseen world of TB from the inside out.