cervical cancer

AbstractBackground: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among Malawian women, despite being a largely preventable disease.

The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence and factors associated with awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Republic of Benin and Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa. About 15,928 and 9,955 women aged 15–49  years were included in this study, respectively. While the majority (79.2%) of women from Zimbabwe have heard about cervical cancer, only about one-tenth (10.2%) of their Beninese counterparts have heard about the disease. The study has revealed that socio-demographical factors including geographical location and selected economic factors explained the inequality in distribution of women’s awareness on cervical cancer in both countries. Designing an effective population-based health education and promotion intervention programs on cervical cancer will be a great way forward to improving women’s awareness level on cervical cancer.

To identify and to assess factors enhancing or hindering the delivery of breast and cervical cancer screening services in Malawi with regard to accessibility, uptake, acceptability and effectiveness, a search of six bibliographic databases and grey literature was executed to identify relevant studies conducted in Malawi in English. One hundred and one unique records were retrieved and 6 studies were selected for final inclusion in the review. Multiple factors affect breast and cervical cancer service delivery in Malawi, operating at three interlinked levels. At the patient level, lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease, location, poor screening environment and perceived quality of care may act as deterrents to participation in screening; at the health facility level, services are affected by the availability of resources and delivery modalities; and at the healthcare system level, inadequate funding and staffing and lack of appropriate monitoring and guidelines may have a negative impact on services. Convenience of screening, in terms of accessibility and integration with other health services, was found to have a positive effect on service uptake. Building awareness of cancer and related services and offering quality screening are significant determinants of patient satisfaction. Capitalising on these lessons is essential to strengthen breast and cervical cancer service delivery in Malawi, to increase early detection and to improve survival of women.

We assessed community awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms and perceptions about prevention and cure of cervical cancer in order to contribute data to inform interventions to improve cervical cancer survival. The study was conducted in Gulu, a post-conflict district in Uganda in 2012. The sample included 448 adults. Recognition of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms was high among study participants. Targeted interventions including increasing availability of HPV vaccination, population-based cervical screening and diagnostic services can translate high awareness into actual benefits.

This hospital-based study aimed to examine patient and primary healthcare factors and stage at diagnosis in women with cervical cancer in Northern Uganda in order to identify factors associated with advanced stages, to inform policies to improve survival from cervical cancer in low income and middle income countries. Of 166 patients attending care, 149 were enrolled and analysed. Most women were diagnosed at stages III (45%) or IV (21%). Understanding individual patient factors, patients' behavioural characteristics and healthcare factors associated with advanced stage at diagnosis is essential for targeted effective public health interventions to promote prompt health seeking, diagnosis at early stage and improved survival from cervical cancer.

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