Mozambique

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or AIDS in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. The seroprevalence of HIV among women in Mozambique was 10.3% (95% CI 9.2%, 11.6%). Furthermore, women who had two, three and four or more total lifetime number of sex partners were 2.73, 5.61 and 3.95 times as likely to have HIV infection when compared with women with only one lifetime sex partners, respectively. In addition, women of Islam religion had 60% reduction in HIV infection when compared with Christian women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.16, 0.99). Female headship and wealth quintiles were associated with HIV infection at household level. Community illiteracy, intimate partner violence, poverty and geographical region were associated with HIV infection at community level.

The objective of this study was to describe the conceptual and implementation approach of selected digital health technologies that were tailored in various resource-constrained countries. Drawing from our multi-year institutional experience in more than 20 high disease-burden countries that aspire to meet the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, we screened internal project documentation on various digital health tools that provide clarity in the conceptual and implementation approach. Taking into account geographic diversity, we provide a descriptive review of five selected case studies from Bangladesh (Asia), Mali (Francophone Africa), Uganda (East Africa), Mozambique (Lusophone Africa), and Namibia (Southern Africa). A key lesson learned is to harness and build on existing governance structures. The use of data for decision-making at all levels needs to be cultivated and sustained through multi-stakeholder partnerships. The next phase of information management development is to build systems for triangulation of data from patients, commodities, geomapping, and other parameters of the pharmaceutical system. A well-defined research agenda must be developed to determine the effectiveness of the country- and regional-level dashboards as an early warning system to mitigate stock-outs and wastage of medicines and commodities.

This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH).

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