prenatal care

AbstractBackgroundIn Madagascar, maternal mortality remains stable and high (426 deaths per 100,000 live births). This situation is mainly due to a delay or lack of use of maternal healthcare services. Problems related to maternal healthcare services are well documented in Madagascar, but little information related to maternal healthcare seeking is known.

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and identify the associated factors of eight or more ANC contacts in Nigeria. We used a nationally representative cross-sectional data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey—2018. A total sample of 7,936 women were included in this study. The prevalence of eight or more ANC contacts in Nigeria was approximately 17.4%. Women with at least secondary education were 2.46 times as likely to have eight or more ANC contacts, when compared with women with no formal education. Women who use media were 2.37 times as likely to have eight or more ANC contacts, when compared with women who do not use media. For every unit increase in the time (month) of ANC initiation, there was 53% reduction in the odds of eight or more ANC contacts. Rural women had 60% reduction in the odds of eight or more ANC contacts, when compared with their urban counterparts. Women from North East and North West had 74% and 79% reduction respectively in the odds of eight or more ANC contacts, whereas women from South East, South South and South West were 2.68, 5.00 and 14.22 times respectively as likely to have eight or more ANC contacts when compared with women from North Central. The coverage of eight or more ANC contacts was low and can be influenced by individual-, household-, and community-level factors. There should be concerted efforts to improve maternal socioeconomic status, as well as create awareness among key population for optimal utilization of ANC.

It has been widely confirmed that by implementing appropriate evidence-based practices, ANC can save lives. The new guidelines set by the World Health Organization 2016 recommended increasing contacts with health providers from four to eight contacts. The present study aims to determine the frequency, determinants, and socioeconomic inequalities of ANC utilization based on the eight or more contacts in Benin. This will provide information for policy makers to improve ANC utilization. We used population-based cross-sectional data from Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)—2017–2018. The outcome variable considered for this study was coverage of ≥ 8 ANC contacts. About 1094 women of reproductive age who became pregnant after the new guideline of ≥ 8 ANC contacts was endorsed were included in this study. The coverage of ≥ 8 ANC contacts was 8.0%; 95%CI 6.5%, 9.7%. Women’s enlightenment, early ANC initiation, and socioeconomic inequalities determined the coverage of ≥ 8 ANC contacts. The findings bring to light the need to enhance women’s enlightenment through formal education, exposure to mass media, and other channels of behavior change communication. Health care programs which encourage early antenatal care initiation should be designed or strengthened to enhance the coverage of ANC contacts in Benin.


A cross-sectional study conducted in two states of India during 2006-08 found a disconnect between routine antenatal practices in India and known strategies to prevent and treat malaria in pregnancy. Prevention strategies, in particular the use of insecticide-treated bednets, are underutilized.

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