Results 1376 - 1389 of 1389

 Although international guidelines for tuberculosis (TB) control are standardized, country TB programs are often unable to properly manage the data needed for following the guidelines, resulting in poorly timed interventions. The emergence of drug-resistant (DR-TB) has made it more difficult to manage cases and medicines, increasing the need for tools that effectively monitor diagnosing

The intermittent administration of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended to prevent malaria among children aged 3–59 months in areas of the Sahel subregion in Africa. However, the cost-effectiveness and cost savings of SMC have not previously been evaluated in large-scale studies. We did a cost-effectiveness and cost-savings analysis of a large-scale, multi-country SMC campaign with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine for children younger than 5 years in seven countries in the Sahel subregion (Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and The Gambia) in 2016. The total cost of SMC for all seven countries was $22·8 million, and the weighted average economic cost of administering four monthly SMC cycles was $3·63 per child (ranging from $2·71 in Niger to $8·20 in The Gambia). Based on 80% modelled effectiveness of SMC, the incremental economic cost per malaria case averted ranged from $2·91 in Niger to $30·73 in The Gambia. The estimated total economic cost savings to the health systems in all seven countries were US$66·0 million and the total net economic cost savings were US$43·2 million. Our interpretation is that SMC is a low-cost and highly cost-effective intervention that contributes to substantial cost savings by reducing malaria diagnostic and treatment costs among children.

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or AIDS in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. The seroprevalence of HIV among women in Mozambique was 10.3% (95% CI 9.2%, 11.6%). Furthermore, women who had two, three and four or more total lifetime number of sex partners were 2.73, 5.61 and 3.95 times as likely to have HIV infection when compared with women with only one lifetime sex partners, respectively. In addition, women of Islam religion had 60% reduction in HIV infection when compared with Christian women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.16, 0.99). Female headship and wealth quintiles were associated with HIV infection at household level. Community illiteracy, intimate partner violence, poverty and geographical region were associated with HIV infection at community level.

We evaluated the benefit of socioeconomic support (S-E support), comprising various financial and nonfinancial services that are available based on assessment of need, in reducing mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) at Reach Out Mbuya, a community-based, antiretroviral therapy program in Uganda. Retrospective observational cohort data from adult patients enrolled between May 31, 2001, and May 31, 2010, were examined. In total 6654 patients were evaluated. Provision of S-E support reduced LTFU and mortality, suggesting the value of incorporating such strategies for promoting continuity of care.Conclusions—Provision of S-E support reduced LTFU and mortality, suggesting the value of incorporating such strategies for promoting continuity of care.

To identify and to assess factors enhancing or hindering the delivery of breast and cervical cancer screening services in Malawi with regard to accessibility, uptake, acceptability and effectiveness, a search of six bibliographic databases and grey literature was executed to identify relevant studies conducted in Malawi in English. One hundred and one unique records were retrieved and 6 studies were selected for final inclusion in the review. Multiple factors affect breast and cervical cancer service delivery in Malawi, operating at three interlinked levels. At the patient level, lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease, location, poor screening environment and perceived quality of care may act as deterrents to participation in screening; at the health facility level, services are affected by the availability of resources and delivery modalities; and at the healthcare system level, inadequate funding and staffing and lack of appropriate monitoring and guidelines may have a negative impact on services. Convenience of screening, in terms of accessibility and integration with other health services, was found to have a positive effect on service uptake. Building awareness of cancer and related services and offering quality screening are significant determinants of patient satisfaction. Capitalising on these lessons is essential to strengthen breast and cervical cancer service delivery in Malawi, to increase early detection and to improve survival of women.

The USAID-funded Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program in Ukraine worked with the Ministry of Health (MOH) and other stakeholders to strengthen the country’s pharmaceutical systems and enhance the transparency of procurement practices and rational medicine use. 

The Grant Management Solutions (GMS) project experimented with a business-focused approach for strengthening regional technical support organizations to provide independent, high-quality management-related technical assistance to the country coordinating mechanisms and principal recipients of grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

This commentary highlights the challenges for pharmacovigilance (PV) posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and how PV practitioners in Africa can use this opportunity to strengthen patient safety. The commentary discusses remedies that lack clinical evidence and are potentially dangerous and the hidden effects of irrational use of medicines and medical products. It also examines the increase in poor reporting of adverse effects as well as the weakening of PV systems. It concludes that drug safety practitioners need to be vigilant about these risks and strengthen reporting systems to document, characterize, communicate, and minimize the risks of such remedies.

STRIDES for Family Health, 2009–2014STRIDES for Family Health was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and led by Management Sciences for Health (MSH), which partnered with the Communication for Development Foundation Uganda (CDFU), Jhpiego, and Meridian Group International.

STRIDES for Family Health built on this momentum when it began activities in Uganda two years later. STRIDES contributed to the Ugandan Government’s goal of improving the health of families and communities by reducing fertility and lowering maternal, newborn, infant, and child morbidity and mortality.

Uganda’s high maternal mortality ratio is one symptom of the inadequacies of the Ugandan health system. For every 100,000 live births in Uganda, 438 mothers die, compared to 320 in nearby Rwanda, for example, or 16 in developed countries.

This compendium is for the use of national TB program staff in high burden settings who are trying to identify strategies to reach at-risk and vulnerable communities more effectively it contains very summarized descriptions of over 120 approaches to reach and serve at-risk and vulnerable populations, and links to over 650 tools and reference materials.The strategies are organized chronologically,

Please download to read the USAID Safe, Affordable, and Effective Medicines for Ukrainians (SAFEMed) Activity in Ukraine News Digest, October 2021 edition. 

The Care and Treatment for Sustained Support (CaTSS) project applies Nigeria’s test and treat approach to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals.