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The primary mode for the spread of TB is person to person, and it is estimated that a person with TB can infect up to 15 individuals each year until that patient starts treatment and is rendered non-infectious. The USAID-funded Challenge TB project implemented a demonstration initiative that provided preventive treatment for household contacts of TB patients.

The USAID-funded Challenge TB project collaborated with the Ethiopian National TB Control Program (NTP) and regional health bureaus to integrate TB screening into all health service outlets across the country. The intensive support included mentorship of hospital staff by zonal and regional teams, routine check-ins, on-site capacity building, and close follow-up.

Previously, Ethiopia used conventional methods for mycobacteria culture and drug susceptibility testing, which take 4-12 weeks to get results and require sequential procedures for the diagnosis. The recently introduced second-line probe assay (SL-LPA) delivers results in just 24-48 hours, a vast improvement over the conventional method.

The Ethiopian National TB Program (NTP) has made important contributions to the decentralization of multidrug-resistant (MDR) treatment and follow-up sites across the country.

The Technical Support Services Project (TSSP) worked with the Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly, and Children (MoHCDGEC) to analyze data to project future health care employment needs, including current and future vacancies, and create a five-year recruitment and staffing plan.

The Leadership Development Program (LDP+) is an experiential approach developed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH). The program enables individuals at all levels of an organization to develop the skills they need to lead, manage, and govern programs; meet challenges; and achieve measurable desired results.

In 2014, the Government of Angola introduced a national community development and health worker program to address challenges affecting the poor.

To address the high burden of TB in the Philippines, the National TB Control Program (NTP) of the Department of Health (DOH) is working to ensure access to TB medicines.

One of the key elements of successful tuberculosis (TB) control programs is adherence to treatment, and this is a cornerstone of most international and national policies and guidelines. Non-adherence is often due to patient-related factors, but can also be a result of provider issues, such as stock-outs of TB medicines.

This technical highlight explores the results of the USAID-funded Leadership, Management, and Governance Project's assessment of youth leadership development programs around the world and provides six recommendations for implementing an effective youth leadership program.

From 2013-2017, the LMG Project provided technical assistance to the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) in Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Lao PDR, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Togo, through the indispensable work and expertise of Senior Technical Advisors.These advisors, who are directly embedded within the NMCP, served as technical experts as well as day-to-day coaches

From 2013-2017, the USAID-funded Leadership, Management, and Governance (LMG) Project worked with the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) to provide long-term technical assistance to the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of seven countries.The LMG/NMCP Project embedded Senior Technical Advisors within the NCMP, alongside NMCP staff, for two to four years.

From 2013 to 2017, the USAID-funded Leadership, Management, and Governance (LMG) Project provided technical assistance to National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs), through the placement of long-term technical advisors, in Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Lao PDR, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.The LMG/NMCP Project's experience suggested that this technical assistance model couldbe

The USAID-funded Leadership, Management, and Governance (LMG) Project used a case study methodology to document examples of effective citizen engagement in health service delivery to document lessons learned, best practices, and recommendations for strong health project design.This work culminated in a literature review, Engaging Citizens in Health Service Delivery, that was published in August 20

The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has a long history of providing essential sexual and reproductive health services to young people.

The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has a long history of providing essential sexual and reproductive health services to young people.

Between 2011-2016, the USAID-funded Leadership, Management, and Governance (LMG) Project designed and delivered a wide range of programs to develop inspired leaders, sound management systems, and transparent governance at all levels of the health system to deliver more responsive services to more people.

The LMG for Midwifery Managers Certificate Course was first developed with LMG Project partner Amref Health Africa in 2014.

Over the last decade, the Ethiopian health system has undergone rapid changes resulting in notable improvements in health. However, Ethiopia remains a high tuberculosis (TB)-burden country with an estimated incidence of 164 per 100,000 population. TB services are decentralized to deliver care to rural communities however there are fragmentations in the level of services provided.

Despite significant progress towards achieving its Millennium Development Goals, Madagascar was unable to meet many of its targets. The Government of Madagascar has identified community health as a priority for improving health outcomes and is therefore updating its National Community Health Policy and Strategy.

The National Community Health Strategy (SNSC) 2019-2023 for Burkina Faso, validated on December 28, 2018, seeks to set up a national health system which promotes preventative health and makes the community approach to primary health care the foundation for achieving universal health coverage.

In many countries, preventing, detecting, and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are essential parts of reproductive health services. In light of the pandemic of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) and the roleof STDs in making men and women more vulnerable to HIV infection, STD services are receiving increased attention.

Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, family planning managers are rising to the challenge to offer a broader scope of reproductive health services to their clients.

UNAIDS estimates that about 2.6 million children (aged 0-14) were living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of the year 2001, and most of these HIV infections were a result of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In the same year, about 11 million children aged 0-14 were orphans as a result of their parent or parents' AIDSrelated death.

The Need for Change Management

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