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In India, only 62% of children had received a full course of basic vaccines in 2016. We evaluated the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI), a campaign-style intervention to increase routine immunization coverage and equity in India, implemented in 2017-2018. We conducted a comparative interrupted time-series analysis using monthly district-level data on vaccine doses delivered, comparing districts participating and not participating in IMI. We estimated the impact of IMI on coverage and under-coverage (defined as the proportion of children who were unvaccinated) during the four-month implementation period and in subsequent months. During implementation, IMI increased delivery of thirteen infant vaccines by between 1.6% (95% CI: -6.4, 10.2%) and 13.8% (3.0%, 25.7%). We did not find evidence of a sustained effect during the 8 months after implementation ended. Over the 12 months from the beginning of implementation, IMI reduced under-coverage of childhood vaccination by between 3.9% (- 6.9%, 13.7%) and 35.7% (-7.5%, 77.4%). The largest estimated effects were for the first doses of vaccines against diptheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio.

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or AIDS in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. The seroprevalence of HIV among women in Mozambique was 10.3% (95% CI 9.2%, 11.6%). Furthermore, women who had two, three and four or more total lifetime number of sex partners were 2.73, 5.61 and 3.95 times as likely to have HIV infection when compared with women with only one lifetime sex partners, respectively. In addition, women of Islam religion had 60% reduction in HIV infection when compared with Christian women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.16, 0.99). Female headship and wealth quintiles were associated with HIV infection at household level. Community illiteracy, intimate partner violence, poverty and geographical region were associated with HIV infection at community level.