Warned that she was ill, we expected to find 50-year-old Salome Kombe in bed and ready to die. Though she is among an older demographic of HIV-infected Tanzanians, Salome is by no means retiring. Surprisingly, she walked to greet us, looking happy and strong. HIV-positive and living in a one-room shack, Salome is unemployed and struggles to care for three grandchildren; ensuring they have enough food is a daily effort. Her neighbors and family offer some support, but are equally poor.

Strength and CourageOne of the men wanted to speak, and Razia Naeem Khliqi inclined her scarf-draped head and leaned toward him. His tired eyes spoke of pain, but his voice was steady. "The women in our village," he said softly, "are dying."The anguished words of this young man, a volunteer Community Health Worker in the village of Shekh Ali, Parwan Province, are the reason Management Sciences for Health (MSH) is in Afghanistan.

Could people become immune?A paper by Dr. Malcolm Bryant of Management Sciences for Health was presented at the American Public Health Association Conference in San Francisco last November. The topic of this provocative presentation was whether widespread resistance to antiretroviral agents is inevitable in Africa.Antiretroviral treatments provide hope to people infected with HIV/AIDS in Africa and around the world. However, this treatment requires an absolutely accurate prescription coupled with an adherence by the patient to a prescribed regimen.