WHO-led Consensus Statement on Vaccine Delivery Costing: Process, Methods, and Findings

Journal Articles
, Primary Health Care

WHO-led Consensus Statement on Vaccine Delivery Costing: Process, Methods, and Findings

By: Ann Levin, Laura Boonstoppel, Logan Brenzel, Ulla Griffiths, Raymond Hutubessy, Mark Jit, Vittal Mogasale, Sarah Pallas, Stephen Resch, Christian Suharlim & Karene Hoi Ting Yeung

Publication: BMC Medicine, 8 March, 2022 DOI: https://10.1017/S0266462322000423


Differences in definitions and methodological approaches have hindered comparison and synthesis of economic evaluation results across multiple health domains, including immunization. At the request of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Immunization and Vaccines-related Implementation Research Advisory Committee (IVIRAC), WHO convened an ad hoc Vaccine Delivery Costing Working Group, comprising experts from eight organizations working in immunization costing, to address a lack of standardization and gaps in definitions and methodological guidance. The aim of the Working Group was to develop a consensus statement harmonizing terminology and principles and to formulate recommendations for vaccine delivery costing for decision making. This paper discusses the process, findings of the review, and recommendations in the Consensus Statement.


The Working Group conducted several interviews, teleconferences, and one in-person meeting to identify groups working in vaccine delivery costing as well as existing guidance documents and costing tools, focusing on those for low- and middle-income country settings. They then reviewed the costing aims, perspectives, terms, methods, and principles in these documents. Consensus statement principles were drafted to align with the Global Health Cost Consortium costing guide as an agreed normative reference, and consensus definitions were drafted to reflect the predominant view across the documents reviewed.


The Working Group identified four major workstreams on vaccine delivery costing as well as nine guidance documents and eleven costing tools for immunization costing. They found that some terms and principles were commonly defined while others were specific to individual workstreams. Based on these findings and extensive consultation, recommendations to harmonize differences in terminology and principles were made.